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A Bibliography of Northern Saskatchewan Archaeology and Prehistory

by Tim Jones
Saskatchewan Archaeological Society

Abouguendia, Z. M. (editor)
1981 Athabasca Sand Dunes in Saskatchewan. Mackenzie River Basin Study Report Supplement 7. Environment Canada, Regina.
Presents the results of an interdisciplinary research study of the Mackenzie River Basin. The main body of archaeological material is found in Mackenzie River Basin Committee 1981; Rowe 1981 and Wilson 1981.
Adams, Gary
1981 Fur Trade Archaeology in Western Canada: A Critical Evaluation and Bibliography. Saskatchewan Archaeology 2(1&2): 39-53.
A highly critical review of fur trade archaeology and a bibliography of publications from east of the Rocky Mountains.
Arrowsmith, W.
1963 Northern Saskatchewan and the Fur Trade. M.A. thesis, Department of Economics and Political Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.
Atton, F. M.
1993 "The Life: Fish and Water", pp. 27-26 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
Barka, Norman F., and Ann Barka
1976 Archaeology and the Fur Trade: The Excavation of Sturgeon Fort, Saskatchewan. History and Archaeology No. 7. Parks Canada, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa.
Beaulieu, Carol
1982 Conservation Treatment of the Jacobsen Bay Pot. Saskatchewan Archaeological Society Newsletter 3(5): 70-71.
A discussion of the processes involved in conserving the Jacobsen Bay pot, a Clearwater phase (ca. 300-600 years ago) clay vessel, as conducted by the Saskatchewan Research Council.
Brumbach, Hetty Jo, Robert Jarvenpa, and Clifford Buell
1982 An Ethnoarchaeological Approach to Chipewyan Adaptations in the Late Fur Trade Period. Arctic Anthropology 19(1): 1-49.
Burley, D., and D. Meyer (editors)
1982 Regional Overview and Research Considerations. In Nipawin Heritage Reservoir Study, vol. 3. Publication No. C-805-25-E-82. Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon. Report on file, Saskatchewan Parks, Recreation and Culture, Regina.
Consists of a summary of baseline data relevant to an understanding of the human occupation of the Nipawin Study Area both prehistorically and historically.
Burley, David, Jean Prentice, and Jim Finnigan
1982 The Prehistory of the Nipawin Region and its Relationship to Northern Plains and Boreal Forest Culture History, vol.3, pp. 44-88, edited by David Burley and David Meyer. Publication No. C-805-25-E-82. Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon.
Dempsey, James
1993 "Effects on Aboriginal Cultures Due to Contact with Henry Kelsey", pp. 131-135 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
Department of Indian and Northern Affairs
1972 Investigation of the Clearwater as a Possible Wild River, National or Historic Park. Wild Rivers Survey, National and Historic Parks Branch, Ottawa.
Dewdney, Selwyn
1963b Indian Rock Art. Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History Popular Series No. 4. Regina.
Includes illustrations and descriptions of pictographs at Medicine Rapids, Larocque Lake, Churchill River, St. Victor and Roche Percee. *
1970 Dating Rock Art in the Canadian Shield Region. Royal Ontario Museum, Art and Archaeology Division, Occasional Paper 24. Toronto.
Contains a report on the Hickson-Maribelli Pictograph Site including a fold-out panorama of the whole site and drawings of twenty-nine panels containing paintings. (Selwyn Dewdney). *
Downes, P. G.
1988 Sleeping Island: The Story of One Man's Travels in the Great Barren Lands of the Canadian North. Foreword and notes by R.H. Cockburn. Western Producer Prairie Books, Saskatoon. (Original book published by Coward-McCann, New York, in 1943).
Primarily a travel account of a 1939 canoe trip through a very isolated part of northern Saskatchewan and Manitoba, but it contains important ethnographic and historical data on Wood Cree and Chipewyan people, as well as some reference to several rock painting and other archaeological sites in the Churchill River-Reindeer Lake regions.
Epp, Henry T.
1991 Long Ago Today: The Story of Saskatchewan's Earliest Peoples. Saskatchewan Archaeological Society, Saskatoon.
The best introduction to the archaeology and early human history of both northern and southern Saskatchewan in book form. Sections deal with an overview of that history, an introduction to archaeological methodology, and information on how the reader can learn more. A special feature of the book is the inclusion of a section of fictitional stories of life in the past based on reasonable inferences about the life of ancient peoples, derived from archaeological information.
1992 "Saskatchewan's Endangered Spaces and Places: Their Significance and Future", by Henry Epp, pp. 47-108 in Saskatchewan's Endangered Spaces: An Introduction, ed. by Peter Jonker. Extension Division, University of Saskatchewan.
1993 "The Life: Animals and Their Importance to Humans", pp. 35-37 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
1993 "Life's Processes: Prehistoric Dynamics", pp. 48-53 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
1993 "Making Predictions", pp. 191-195 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
Epp, Henry T., and Ian Dyck (editors)
1983 Tracking Ancient Hunters: Prehistoric Archaeology in Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Archaeological Society, Regina.
An authoritative compendium by 11 authors describing the state of prehistoric archaeology in Saskatchewan. Includes: (1) definition of the elements of archaeology (sites, features, artifacts, methods), (2) detailed cultural chronologies, (3) discussion of current scientific issues in respect to problem solving and resource management, and (4) description of the complementary roles of amateur and professional archaeologists.
Epp, Henry, and Tim Jones
1969 The Methy Portage - Proposal for a Saskatchewan Historic and Nature Trail. The Blue Jay 27: 101-107.
Fiddler, Sid
1993 "Regaining the Harmony", pp. 186-190 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
Gauthier, David A.
1993 "Saskatchewan: The Present Natural Landscape", pp. 136-141 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
Gibson, T.H.
1993 "Whom Kelsey Met: Lifestyles and Technology of the Late-Seventeenth-Century Cree", pp. 95-112 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
Gordon, Bryan H.C.
1977 "Chipewyan Prehistory", pp. 72-76 in Prehistory of the North American Subarctic: The Athapascan Question, edited by J.W. Helmer, S. Van Dyke and F.J. Kense. Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary.
Government of Saskatchewan
1979-80 The Heritage Property Act, being Chapter H-2.2 of the Statutes of Saskatchewan, as amended subsequently. The Queen's Printer, Regina.
This piece of legislation governs all aspects of archaeological, architectural and palaeontological heritage in Saskatchewan. Copies are available from the Heritage Branch, Department of Municipal Government, 1855 Victoria Ave., Regina, SK S4P 3V7.
Hilderman Witty Crosby Hanna and Associates, I.L.E. Consulting Services, and Tim E. H. Jones
1985a Clearwater River Management Plan Background Report. Prepared for Saskatchewan Parks and Renewable Resources.
Presents baseline information on features and resources to be found in the area of a proposed designated Canadian Heritage River and a provincial wilderness park. Included are data on known and potential archaeological resources, and on ethnohistorical features of the region. See Hilderman et al. 1985b.
1985b Clearwater River Management Plan. Prepared for Saskatchewan Parks and Renewable Resources.
Contains recommendations toward developing and managing important natural and heritage features of the Clearwater River system in Saskatchewan.
Jones, Tim E.H.
1981 The Aboriginal Rock Paintings of the Churchill River. Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History Anthropological Series No. 4.
A study of 22 rock painting localities on the Churchill River system, 20 of which are found in Saskatchewan. Includes numerous colour photographs and figures.
1984 "Writings on the Rocks." The Green & White, Spring: 11-13. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.
An overview of Canadian Shield rock art and the author's involvement in the subject. Illustrated by four colour photographs of northern Saskatchewan sites and one of a Manitoba site.
1991 Illustration 27 in Long Ago Today: The Story of Saskatchewan's Earliest Peoples, by Henry T. Epp. Saskatchewan Archaeological Society.
Reproductions of rock paintings on Mari Lake north of Flin Flon, and on Larocque Lake, north of Missinipe.
1993 "'The Inland Country of Good Report': Protecting and Preserving Our Land Heritage," pp. 158-172 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's 'Inland Country of Good Report, ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
1993 Illustration on p. 64, "People Before Kelsey: An Overview of Cultural Developments," by David Meyer, pp. 54-73 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's 'Inland Country of Good Report, ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, Regina.
A reproduction of the upper of two sets of rock paintings at the Warehouse Bay site on Amisk Lake, near Flin Flon.
Klimko, Olga
1982 Fur Trade History of the Saskatchewan River 1760-1850. In Regional Overview and Research Considerations, edited by David Burley and David Meyer, pp. 116-149. Saskatchewan Research Council Publication No. C-805-25-E- 82, Saskatoon.
An historical account of the Saskatchewan River fur trade. Also included is a review of available documentation concerning eight fur trade posts within the Nipawin study area, stressing location, construction and daily activities.
1982 The Steamboat Era and Settlement Pattern of the Nipawin Region to 1924. In Regional Overview and Research Considerations, edited by David Burley and David Meyer. pp. 244-255. Nipawin Reservoir Heritage Study, Vol. 3. Saskatchewan Research Council Publication No. C-805-25-E- 82, Saskatoon.
A post fur trade historical overview of the Nipawin area, from the mid 1800s to 1924.
Meyer, David
1975 Churchill River Archaeology Study Summary of Findings. Saskatchewan Archaeology Newsletter 48: 7-11.
Three hundred and thirty-eight sites were located, the majority attributable to the Clearwater Lake phase. Also represented were the Manitoba and McKean phases and the Shield Archaic tradition, and historic trading posts.*
1977 Nipawin Archaeological Survey for the Saskatchewan Power Corporation. Saskatchewan Research Council, Report No. C- 77-6, Saskatoon.
One hundred and ninety-one sites were examined along a 50 km stretch of the Saskatchewan River valley extending upstream from the town of Nipawin. Materials relating to the Late Plano, Early Side-notched, Oxbow, McKean, Hanna, Pelican Lake, Besant, Avonlea, and Selkirk periods were recovered.
1975 Churchill River Archaeology Study Summary of Findings. Saskatchewan Archaeology Newsletter 48: 7-11.
Three hundred and thirty-eight sites were located, the majority attributable to the Clearwater Lake phase. Also represented were the Manitoba and McKean phases and the Shield Archaic tradition, and historic trading posts.*
1977a Nipawin Archaeological Survey for the Saskatchewan Power Corporation. Saskatchewan Research Council, Report No. C- 77-6, Saskatoon.
One hundred and ninety-one sites were examined along a 50 km stretch of the Saskatchewan River valley extending upstream from the town of Nipawin. Materials relating to the Late Plano, Early Side.notched, Oxbow, McKean, Hanna, Pelican Lake, Besant, Avonlea, and Selkirk periods were recovered.
1982a Cree Ethnography in the Late Historic Period. In Regional Overview and Research Considerations, edited by David Burley and David Meyer, pp. 211-243. Nipawin Reservoir Heritage Study, vol. 3. Saskatchewan Research Council Publication No. C-805-E-82, Saskatoon.
A discussion of the ethnic groups and the changes in ethnic representation and cultural characteristics which occurred within the upper Saskatchewan River valley between 1821-1900. In particular, the nature of settlement patterns as integrated with the economic system is explored.
1982b Subsistence Resources of the Nipawin Region. In Regional Overview and Research Considerations, edited by David Burley and David Meyer, pp. 31-43. Nipawin Reservoir Heritage Study, vol. 3. Saskatchewan Research Council Publication No. C-805-25-E-82, Saskatoon.
A review of the subsistence resources available to prehistoric hunters and gatherers in the Nipawin reservoir study area. Pollen analyses within the latter area and from adjacent regions indicate a parkland environment up to about 3000 years ago, following which forest expanded south through the region to its historically known limits.
1983c The Prehistory of Northern Saskatchewan. In Tracking Ancient Hunters, edited by Henry T. Epp and Ian Dyck, pp. 141-170. Saskatchewan Archaeological Society, Regina.
An overview of the prehistory of northern Saskatchewan, incorporating the results of recent work. Includes a discussion of the environment, the major subsistence adaptations, and the archaeological cultures present.
1987a The Time-depth of the Western Woods Cree Occupation of Northern Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. In Papers of the Eighteenth Algonquian Conference, edited by William Cowan, pp. 26-33. Carleton University, Ottawa.
It is argued on the basis of archaeological evidence that Crees did not move west in the historic period (the established hypothesis) but were present there for centuries prior to European contact.
1993 "People Before Kelsey: An Overview of Cultural Developments", pp. 54-73 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
1995 "Churchill River Archaeology in Saskatchewan: How Much Do We Know?", pp. 52-59 in The Churchill: A Canadian Heritage River, ed. by Peter Jonker. University of Saskatchewan Extension Division, Saskatoon.
Presents a good, brief overview of the history of archaeological research and of the archaeologiucal history of this part of northern Saskatchewan, and outlines future desirable research directions.
Meyer, David, T. Gibson, and D. Russell
1992 The quest for Pasquatinow: an aboriginal gathering centre in the Saskatchewan River valley. Prairie Forum 17(2): 201-223.
Meyer, David, and Sydney J. Smailes
1975 Archaeology. Final Report 19, edited by Judith Mitchell. Department of Tourism and Renewable Resources, Regina.
The results of the Churchill River Study are presented, as are an evaluation of the sites and recommendations for mitigative work.
Meyer, David, and Paul Thistle
1995 Saskatchewan River rendezvous centres and trading posts: continuity in a Cree social geography. Ethnohistory 42(3).
Minni, Sheila
1976 The Prehistoric Occupations of Black Lake, Northern Saskatchewan. Mercury Series Paper No. 53, Archaeological Survey of Canada, National Museum of Man, Ottawa.
Mondor, Claude, and Priidu Juurand
1975 The Churchill River: A Resource for Conservation and Recreation. The Musk-Ox 15: 44-52. Institute for Northern Studies, Saskatoon.
Morse, Eric
1969 Fur Trade Routes/Then and Now. Queen's Printer, Ottawa.
Pelly-Landrie, Linda
1993 "First Nations Cultures, Now and in the Future", pp. 177-185 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
Pohorecky, Zenon S. and Tim E. H. Jones
1967 Aboriginal pictographs on Kipahigan Lake in the Precambrian Shield of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The Musk-Ox 2: 3-36. Institute for Northern Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.
1968a Canada's Oldest Known Pictograph? Saskatchewan History 21: 30-36.
A pictograph site on the Churchill River is illustrated, described and identified as that reported by Alexander Mackenzie in the late 18th century. *
1970 Culture, Art and Morality. The Structurist 10: 8-17.
An essay based on a consideration of rock art in the Precambrian Shield of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. *
Ray, Arthur J.
1972 Indian Adaptations to the Forest-Grassland Boundary of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, 1650-1821; Some Implications for Interregional Migration. Canadian Geographer 16: 103-118.
The impact of the fur trade is evaluated in terms of the tribal distribution and seasonal exploitation cycles of the Cree and Assiniboine. It is argued that the economic opportunities provided by the fur trade provided the main stimulus to migration in the early historic period. A seasonal exploitation cycle between woodlands, parklands and grasslands is documented. *
1974 Indians in the Fur Trade: Their Role as Trappers, Hunters, and Middlemen in the Lands Southwest of Hudson Bay, 1660-1870. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
A study of the interaction of the Indians, primarily Assiniboine and Cree, with the fur traders and with the environment; important contributions are made to the understanding of population changes, seasonal movements and the impact of the fur trade. *
1993 "Some Thoughts About the Reasons for Spatial Dynamism in the Early Fur Trade, 1580-1800", pp. 113-122 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
Robinson, Sidney
1995 "Selected Early Historic Sites on the Churchill River", pp. 62-66 in The Churchill: A Canadian Heritage River, ed. by Peter Jonker. University of Saskatchewan Extension Division, Saskatoon.
An anecdotal view of some of the author's favourite sites, with some details on the history of several of them.
Ronaghan, Allen
1993 "Reconstructing Kelsey's Travels", pp. 89-94 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
Rowe, J. S.
1981 Executive Summary, pp.i-xi in Athabasca Sand Dunes in Saskatchewan, edited by Z. M. Abouguendia. Mackenzie River Basin Study Report Supplement 7. Mackenzie River Basin Committee.
This Summary includes the following statement on the archaeological research component of the overall Mackenzie Basin Study: "A total of 59 archaeological sites have been recorded for the study area, and 14 of these were found in 1979-80. Most sites occur within two kilometres of Lake Athabasca, many on old raised beaches. Evidence from other areas has demonstrated the dependence of prehistoric people on barren-ground caribou whose trails along lakes and beach ridges were probably a major influence on campsite selection. Lithic artifacts of sandstone, quartz, chert, and siltstone suggest occupancy of the area at least intermittently for 7000 to 8000 years. The earliest residents belonged to the Agate Basin complex of the Palaeo-Indian Tradition. Also represented are artifacts of the later Shield Archaic and Arctic Small Tool Traditions. More recent projectile points, representative of the Early, Middle and Late Taltheilei Traditions were found at each of four or five sites. Other artifacts suggest that Thompson Bay on the south shore of the lake is a dividing point between plains material on the west and boreal material on the east." Also see Wilson 1981, Abouguendia 1981 and Mackenzie River Basin Committee 1981.
Russell, Dale
1982b Initial European Contacts and the Fur Trade to 1767 on the Saskatchewan River. In Nipawin Reservoir Heritage Study, vol. 3, edited by David Burley and David Meyer, pp. 89-115. Saskatchewan Research Council Publication No. C-805-25-E-82, Saskatoon.
A discussion of the historical evolution of the fur trade on Hudson Bay and adjacent areas and the direct consequences this had for the Saskatchewan River region. Also included is an outline of the potential access to trade goods that the Saskatchewan River peoples may have enjoyed prior to the establishment of the first trading post in this region in 1767.
1993 "The Puzzle of Henry Kelsey and His Journey to the West", pp. 74-88 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
Steer, Donald
1973 History and Archaeology of the Historic Site of La Loche House, Northern Saskatchewan. The Musk-Ox 12: 13-31.
The site is identified as belonging to the Northwest Company (l789-1791). *
Thistle, Paul C.
1993 "Dependence and Control: Indian-European Trade Relations in the Post-Kelsey Era", pp. 124-130 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
Thorpe, Jeffrey
1993 "The Life: Vegetation and Life Zones", pp. 11-16 in Three Hundred Prairie Years: Henry Kelsey's "Inland Country of Good Report", ed. by Henry Epp. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.
Wright, James V.
1975 The Prehistory of Lake Athabasca: An Initial Statement. Archaeological Survey of Canada Mercury Series Paper No. 29. National Museum of Man, Ottawa.
A number of sites are described; those in the Saskatchewan portion of the lake relate almost entirely to the Taltheilei Shale tradition. The author hypothesizes that the region was influenced by the proximity of the Plains, Arctic and Boreal Forest culture areas and that the western and eastern portions of the lake were occupied by different cultural groups. *
1981 Prehistory of the Canadian Shield. In Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 6 (Subarctic), edited by June Helm, pp. 86-97. Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

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April 26, 1996


Bibliographies: Archaeology and Prehistory | Northern Saskatchewan Ethnology

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